During the 11th century the Druze faith emerged from a branch of Shia Islam.The new faith gained followers in the southern portion of Mount Lebanon.Bechara El Khoury, President of Lebanon during the independence, Riad El-Solh, first Lebanese prime minister and Emir Majid Arslan II, first Lebanese minister of defence, are considered the founders of the modern Republic of Lebanon and are national heroes for having led the country's independence.Foreign troops withdrew completely from Lebanon on 31 December 1946.During the Crusades, the Maronites re-established contact with the Roman Catholic Church and asserted their communion with Rome.The ties they established with the Latins have influenced the region into the modern era.The French expanded the borders of the Mount Lebanon Governorate, which was mostly populated by Maronites and Druze, to include more Muslims.
After two centuries of Persian rule, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great attacked and burned Tyre, the most prominent Phoenician city.
It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.
Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity.
He conquered what is now Lebanon and other nearby regions of the Eastern Mediterranean in 332 BCE.
The region that is now Lebanon, as with the rest of Syria and much of Anatolia, became a major center of Christianity in the Roman Empire during the early spread of the religion.